Hardware vs Software Digital Audio Workstations
for Off-The-Grid Recording Solutions:
Originally written in February of 2013 the following information has been periodically updated as technologies have evolved. The article compares the virtues and vices of a Hardware versus Software approach to home studio recording. Particularly with an emphasis on recording off-the-grid (that is - no mains power).
This article is NOT a comparison of individual hardware and/or software products.
There are magazines and web sites that regularly provide side-by-side comparisons ...
if that's what you are after ... go check'em out.
Since this article may at times appear to have an anti-software and/or anti-PC flavour ... I should probably mention that I have been using, building (several hundred) and repairing PCs since the days of the PC XT and DOS (mid 1980's). I've also clocked up a few thousand hours of writing software for the PC as well. My current PC spec is a 10 core, 4.7GHz Win10 monster that starts the day by asking if there are any 8K video files to eat.
This is just to make the point that I'm not an anti-computer technophobe. I'm both familiar and more than comfortable with PC/Laptop/Tablet related technologies, at both the hardware and software levels. I've been using MIDI for over a decade to control multiple pieces of equipment simultaneously ...
As with all things, we each have our own requirements. We have our needs, wants, wishes and of course, the reality of what we can reasonably afford and/or work with at a given time.
One of the biggest advantages (or so it appears at first) of the PC / Laptop / Software approach to Home Studio Recording, is that most people these days have access to one or more computers. With processing capabilities generally being more than adequate, why not press them into service and use them for recording your music? It sounds perfectly logical and reasonable.
The catch of course - is that (aside from some older Apple Macs) most PCs and Laptops are simply not up to the task of Home Studio Recording without a serious investment in Software, Additional Hardware and quite a bit of your time spent sorting out the bugs, glitches and associated incompatibilities.
These interesting anomalies will of course vary slightly from one machine to the next. Meaning that there isn't necessarily a single fix that will work for everyone. So, by the time you finally get around to the 'recording' part of your adventure in PC based recording wonderland ... your enthusiasm may have taken a serious hit or two along the way (not to mention your wallet).
That's not to say however that PCs and/or Laptops won't be a part of the solution. For example ... I'd love to be able to completely avoid the use of a PC/Laptop in my music recording process. However, that is simply not going to happen.
I'm already using a Laptop as a Guitar/MIDI interface and as a MIDI control centre (something I'm hoping to eventually work-around with BOME gear). Final mastering is generally done on a PC as well - Why? Simply because it's so much easier.
Things to bear in mind - Operational Parameters & Restrictions
The general assumption here is that base power is supplied by batteries, which may then either be used directly (as 12V or 24V DC - preferred) or go to an inverter to be converted to mains level 240VAC 50Hz (or whatever it is where you live).
While solar and/or wind power might be a part of the available power solution mix, each of these may introduce unwanted noise into the power grid, simply due to the required voltage regulation. Whilst this might not be an issue while watching youTube, it very well might be a serious issue if you are recording. So we are assuming low power consumption and preferably drawn directly from a set of batteries.
So, hardware or software DAW for Off-The-Grid Recording?
The following table should provide some insights ...
Laptop / PC / Software DAW
|Power Consumption||As little as 12W for new SD Card Recorders. Older DAWs like Yamaha AW4416 use 80W or more.||80W (Laptop or All-In-One PC)
to Over 350W (Quadcore Desktop PC)
|Laptop on battery 0W
Laptop while charging 80W - 120W
All-in-One (Green) PC 75W - 90W
Standard Desktop PC 250W - 450W
|Features||Fixed - Generally more than adequate for Recording, Mixing Down and very basic Mastering.||Software features (and Plugins) are constrained only by your Credit Card limit.||
Software DAWs (like most PC software) suffer from Feature Bloat. Much of what you are paying for, you will never use. And they will just keep on adding more and more!
|Missing Features|| Most machines won't have motorised faders to allow Record, Playback and/or Edit of a Mix-Down. :-(
Similarly, adding drum tracks can be a painful experience without a real drummer.
Micro-Editing individual tracks can vary from difficult to utterly impossible.
|Budget dependant.||Will vary depending on manufacturer.
Generally speaking though, there is nothing that the software DAWs can't do ... and if there were, some-one would already be working on a program or plug-in to change that.
|Portability||Excellent - Everything you need is essentially in one box. With a good 12V regulator, it could be run from a car cigarette lighter socket.||Only portable if on a laptop, and then you will still need to bring all your I/O hardware and respective connectors.||For a Software DAW to be truly portable on a laptop you will probably need to have a laptop that is dedicated to the task of recording. Much easier and far more practical than it used to be.|
|None, nada, zilch, zero!||Good quality Input Preamps for A to D (Analogue to Digital) conversion and an Output section D to A (Digital to Analogue) conversion for Line Out / Monitor Out and Headphones (sometimes referred to as a Breakout Box). Can get expensive.||Most of the readily 'affordable' options only provide 2 input and 2 output channels. If you need more, you might as well purchase something like the Zoom R16 with 8 inputs that will also serve as a software DAW Control Surface (a bonus).|
|Drum / Rhythm Tracks||Most Hardware DAWs are better suited to live / played and recorded rhythm tracks. Some do however offer built-in drum and bass programming.
For those that do not have built-in drums, time-syncing is generally available to interface with rhythm machines. This is often a cumbersome solution.
Rhythm tracks can be created and saved as MIDI data. This can be readily modified and/or edited as the song evolves.
|Most early Hardware DAWs didn't have built-in MIDI drum and bass programming ability. Many popular ones still don't.
So this is one aspect where the Software DAW simply smokes the Hardware DAW.
The Software DAW wins hands down when it comes to the creation of complex rhythm tracks.
|Additional Channels||Technically, you get what you purchased.
However there are examples (all the way back to the Yamaha AW4416) of recorders being synced together for additional channels.
Even the Tascam DP32 can, via MIDI and a slave DP32, double the available total channels to 64 and record 16 tracks at once.
For some Software DAWs, more channels is simply a matter of using your credit card for an upgrade.
|This is an interesting point of difference between Hardware vs Software DAWs. Most mid to high end Hardware DAWs offer at least 8 simultaneous recording channels (the now old, Yamaha AW4416 could be readily expanded to record 16 channels at once).
Just the I/O hardware for 8 simultaneous recording channels for a Software DAW would cost more than a Hardware DAW to do the same job.
|Latency||Effectively, none.||Can vary from insignificant, to variable, to catastrophic.||See latency explanation.|
|Software||Firmware does occasionally have bugs.
These are usually fixed relatively easily with a manufacturer's firmware update.
|You will have software problems ranging from Operating System and Driver Issues to DAW software bugs including any of the associated Plugins. Expect this!
Another given - If it's installed on a Windows Operating System, it will crash eventually.
|Generally (but not always), the more expensive the DAW software, the better the support and offered bug fixes.|
You will be able to use this device until it breaks.
|Using older PCs as an audio workhorse for recording and DAW functions is becoming increasingly difficult due to Recording Software and Operating System incompatibilities.||There seems to be, an almost deliberate effort to force users to newer software (and hardware) products by deliberately making them 'Non Backward Compatible'. Meaning that, once you start up-grading, you can't stop.|
|Hardware||Control surfaces will wear out over time. However if looked after, they should be good for at least 2 to 5 years of steady use.
Many older machines have lasted well over a decade and are still currently serviceable.
|HDDs (Hard Disk Drives) including the new SSDs (Solid State Drives) will both fail ... it's just a question of when.
That applies to both Software and Hardware DAWs (some of which utilize HDDs).
Most HDDs and SSDs have an MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure) specification in hours. Most are ridiculously exaggerated ;-)
|These days HDDs are only reliable for 2 years of steady use (despite what manufacturers claim).
Apparently SSDs have an even shorter working life-span than HDDs.
I replace all my HDDs after 2 to 3 years (preferably before they begin to shake, rattle and fail).
Heat kills drives and drives run hot!
|Noise||Noise levels will be as good as the devices (guitars, pedals, keyboards, mics, etc.) that you plug into the hardware DAW.
On a 12V powered system ... what noise?
|PCs are a hell-hole of noise sources. Even with a good front-end and good shielding, the noise floor will generally be around -60dB. That's not as good as it sounds by today's standards.
A high quality and quiet (USB or similar) interface is essential.
|Even if you can keep your input signal clean, PC's are notorious for dumping glitches and spikes into your audio. Not to mention an occasional dose of good old file corruption!
Thankfully - it is not nearly as bad as it has been in the past.
|Upgrades||None, apart from accessories.||Limited only by your Credit Card||Note: If it ain't broke - don't fix it!
It is a sad fact of life, that many a perfectly good setup is ruined by that 'great idea' for an improvement and/or upgrade.
|Cost||$800 to $2,000
Where $2K gets you a 32 track system that can record 8 tracks at once.
|These days even a modestly spec'd Hardware DAW shapes up very well when compared to the cost of a PC / Software DAW plus all the required add-ons. An 8 track USB I/O can easily set you back well over $1K.|
|Ease of Use|
|Learning Curve||The learning curve can be steep initially, but once you understand the various processes, that's it!||Ongoing learning curve particularly if you upgrade either equipment, Operating System or DAW software / Plugins.||The difference here is between learning what you need to get your music recorded (Hardware DAW) and learning about all the stuff that you don't want to use to do the same (Software DAW).|
|General Functionality||It's all in front of you, all of the time.
Basically you've got whatever you paid for, plus the occasional firmware update.
|Can be convoluted and cumbersome to achieve even simple outcomes.
However - ultimately more powerful / flexible (if you can get it all to work for you. Many don't).
|I look at this as a simple time equation.
Which would you rather do ... record your songs or spend your time in forums looking for solutions to your hardware and software issues?
What is Latency?
Simply put, Latency is an unwanted delay that is generally specified in ms (milliseconds), which is usually a result of the PC's CPU trying to do too many things at once. A latency of less than 50ms is generally acceptable. Once it gets to 100ms (1/10 of a second) it may be audible and/or problematic. A close analogy would be like hearing an echo of your own voice during a telephone conversation ... it can be very distracting. Ideally of course, latency would be zero or very close to zero (as it is for most hardware DAWs).
These days - if you pay enough money for a PC/Laptop (a minimum example: Intel i7 (7th gen+), 2.8 GHz+ Quad Core CPU, 16GB DDR4 RAM, SSD Boot Drive, 1TB HDD, USB 3, etc.), latency should not be a word you'll need to learn about. Hopefully ;-)
Latency can have a range of causes (click for examples)
The biggest problems with Latency are that it can be unpredictable, complicated to minimise (if that means manually shutting down background services on your older PC) and of course potentially expensive (if the solution is to buy yet more hardware).
A Final Word on DAW Software:
It's been around for decades. I remember using an early version of CakeWalk on a Windows 95 box (yep, I've been around for decades too). Though the performance and feature set of software DAWs has improved out of sight, along with the A to D front ends ... you're still working on a machine (the PC / Laptop) that is not primarily designed to work with high quality audio. A PC is one of the noisiest and pro-audio hostile electronic devices you can imagine ... the true marvel is that so many people get the great results that they do, in spite of this.
Jan 2016 update:
As control surface technology continues to evolve/improve, the distinction between hardware and software based DAWs also continues to blur. The increasing reliance on USB MIDI in most new equipment (in place of the once universal 5 pin DIN MIDI In / Out / Through ports) is an annoyance however, as it makes the use of a PC essential, rather than optional.
You may notice though that the more expensive or 'High-End' controllers ALL have 5 pin DIN MIDI ports available as standard. There are also (rather expensive) MIDI breakout boxes available that allow any MIDI gear (includes software MIDI devices) to be connected via USB and/or DIN MIDI - everything connects to everything. There is also MIDI over Wi-Fi, though you can rig something similar to this yourself with a couple of old iPhones running Bluetooth ;-)
There are several good reasons why manufacturers are are going down this USB MIDI only path. Firstly, they can build a box with mainly keys, knobs, pads and buttons that has greatly simplified electronics (seriously, you could make your own) - because the real work is being done by software running on a remote processor (PC / Laptop / Tablet).
The result is maximum corporate dollars for minimal electronics / hardware and importantly, lower cost to the consumer.
And of course, if the driver software isn't too wonderful and/or 'class compliant', manufacturers also ensure that at some point in the not too distant future ... you will need to upgrade! Everything these days is built with a frighteningly short anticipated working life.
Jan 2019 update:
I/O (Input/Output) devices have seen exponential improvements over the last few years. While high-end still means high price, entry level devices now often also boast astounding specs. Recording at 24bit and 192KHz can be had in your lounge room for a few hundred bucks.
Many I/O devices will also come with an option to download an LE (Light Edition) of a popular DAW software (or in some cases several), so that you can begin almost immediately. It just keeps getting better (more or less ;-)
Jan 2021 update:
Well, it has finally come to pass - who would have guessed that a virus would create a world full of bloggers, artists, and musicians - where even singing in the shower is now 'a thing', you know, whatever 'a thing' actually is.
More importantly, we have reached that place where Hardware DAWs are becoming scarce again in the context of the Home Studio. Not surprising when there is a whole generation now that is used to doing everything from a touch screen.
Along with specialist high quality hand-held devices that can record six or more channels, the traditional Hardware DAW has evolved or perhaps morphed into the ultimate 'all-in-one-place' recording mixer. Where live recording of rehearsals / gigs / sessions and subsequent mixing and mastering can all happen anywhere, any time - on virtually any equipment (subject to the usual 'real-world' limitations of course, that are conveniently omitted from the glossy brochure and YouTube vid ;-)
The attendant assumption of these new technologies, is that a part (quite likely, a very substantial part) of the production process will be completed on a Software DAW. Which is another way of saying that while the possibilities become greater for some, they have lessened for others - status quo.
Releases of dedicated or 'true' all-in-one (studio in a box) hardware DAW music production gear (like the Tascam DP24 and 32) are becoming increasingly rare. A trend that will quite likely continue.
Since we are talking about off-the-grid use, a note on power consumption and cost:
Older - Tascam DP-32 SD, 12W (with phantom power on), new cost AUD $1.1K.
Current - Tascam Model-24 Multi-Track Live Recording Console 52W, new cost AUD $2.1K (and don't forget the PC and software to go with).
The main improvement with the Model-24 is that it can record 24 tracks at once compared to the 8 tracks at once of the DP series.The Model-24 relies on software DAWs for engineering, mastering, post production - the DP series does not.
190921 - (Very Good) I hope to provide some useful comments at a later date. For now, the initial article and subsequent comments by all participants are all appreciated and still relevant. It's All good. Thanks.
190919 - (Excellent) I make music as hobby since 15 years, played in 2 bands and tried several solutions to record and mix our songs, finally coming to an AW4416. I think I will stay with it until it lasts. I even bought a 8in/8out ADAT interface a few month ago to expand it. The MIDI drum (and other MIDI instrument) problem I solved with a QY700 sequencer + a MOXF6. It is MTC synced to the AW4416. Thank you for sharing this great article!.
The Yamaha AW4416 was on my wishlist for over a decade. The specs are still awesome, even today ... but it was the motorised faders and ability to record and play back an entire scene/mix that really had me drooling. Thanks for additional info on the related gear for your recording solution - greatly appreciated ;-)
190614 - (Excellent) I have bought an older Zoom MRS-8, and never used Ableton Live again for recording. Even though I have a good control surface for Ableton, the simplicity of the Zoom beats Ableton and probably any other DAW. I'm not saying that I live without DAW, I do, but use it only for time stretching and post production like cleanup, tempo correction, etc.. But the master mixdown is again a task for the Zoom MRS-8, because the algorithms just kick ass right out of the box. Also the drum machine and the bass synth beats anything that I've heard in DAWs (Cakewalk Sonar, Ableton, Magix Samplitude <- the best sound of the three mentioned). My productivity just improved a lot both quantity and QUALITY.
Thankyou for the informative comment ( ... and a little validation is also nice ;-)
190223 - (Excellent)
Excellent! 100% = The truth! All is covered!
USB MIDI controls = Not universal! + Learn & re-learn...
Old external DIN MIDI gear? Very informative!
Thankyou for the support ;-)
161007 - (Excellent) Quality information my friend, I played with this stuff for along time. Began in an electronic music class in HS on reel to reels and a moog model 55. The evolution of technology is amazing. After a little break I'm splicing my old Akai 8" deck into my hybrid 4416/software rig with some new energy.
I was looking for some reassurance that my aging hardware was still relevant. I have found incorporating a computer system helped with the organization and such, just by enlarging the monitor. I have to second your opinion on the difficulty of drum tracks with my older hdware setup anyway. I've enlarged my space to incorporate an old set of Ludwig's. Its a fact the tech end of this science, can pull you away from the music. Of course some of us are in it to record. I'm still about that thrill of the music myself.
Decent mikes and some preamps maybe can do a lot for your sound... Some of the software problems are less daunting if your recording a session, rather than punching in and out with simulated instruments. its tough to lay down some heartfelt grooves when your playing to a machine that's being difficult.... I've spent a lot a time on a few masterpieces... alone! Rewarding but you can't replace that live feeling.
Hey thanks again for your time... Very useful information for anyone getting started, and us relics too. I'm biased myself to the all in one DAW's... I might add, older hardware based equipment can be had for a fraction of what it retailed at originally. A Yamaha 4416 was $4000-$5000 new. And state of the art when they came on the market. The instruction manuals are enormous. There's much more user friendly and less expensive modern lines out there Prices have gone down across the board for equipment in general. Keep an open mind and you can put about anything to use. Truth is my 1st band we recorded on a cassette recorder, copied the tapes and sold them in the neighborhood... good luck!
Thanks for that note. In the end, it's all about the playing. About being creative and doing something you enjoy. I'm a dinosaur too. I still like to get hands-on once in a while and modify my gear when it suits me, or even make my own. Challenges are good, physical and mental ... ;-)
161007 - (Very Good) Good stuff. I've gone from a Teac A-3340 to a Roland VS 840 to a Tascam US-1641 with Cubase LE 4 and now considering a Tascam DP24SD. I'm just looking for a solid, reliable multi-track workhorse - and honestly don't have the time to deal with all the driver compatibility and latency issues of the Software / Laptop approach. Thanks for a good treatment of a complicated topic. Here's to creativity!
I use a Tascam DP24 (an older one with CD writer ... very handy for a quick demo). I wish it had motorised faders and that it could record/playback a mixdown, but otherwise awesome! No muss, no fuss, just play and record. Of course, if you want to edit out mistakes on individual tracks ... well, you probably won't ;-)
160313 - (Excellent) I am a musician who simply wants to concentrate on music, so the simpler solution for recording is the one I seek. I find the hardware option more attractive for its simplicity but I am concerned about compatibility with any studio I might use for mastering or mixing. Do you have any suggestions?
Firstly, any current model multi-track recorder (all of which now have USB connectivity) should be able to produce standard files (usually .WAV) that are readable by and/or transferable to a reputable recording studio for mastering purposes. If you have any local studios in mind - ask them.
As for the equipment itself ... well, the field is a lot smaller than it was ten years ago. Though, there are still several reputable manufacturers building equipment suitable for the Home Studio market, and these include:
- Tascam who still make a full featured desk-top recorder/mixer (DP24 / DP32).
- Roland (Boss) who seem to have essentially moved to portable only devices.
- Zoom who are covering their bases by making their multi-track recorders also function as Software DAW control surfaces.
- There are also still some classic machines from Yamaha, Akai, Korg and others that have impressive capabilities. Though by now they would almost certainly need new hard drives and perhaps a few other replacement parts. Great if you like a project, not so great if you need to find an old IDE hard drive.
What I have noticed over the last few years, is that the number of new hardware product releases has slowed dramatically. I'm sure that a huge part of that is due to the mainstream move to Software DAWs (read: lack of sales).
Another reason though, is that there is really not much else you can bring to the table in terms of Home Recording hardware. Building ever bigger desks with more channels would just mess with the high-end pro market, so that's just not going to happen.
Though if anyone from Tascam is reading this ... guys, I'd really like motorised faders and recordable/replayable mix-down. Yamaha had it decades ago on their AW4416 ... what's keeping you? - oh, and onboard MIDI drums perhap ;-)
160313 - (Excellent) I've been searching for days for a clear explanation why one might choose hardware over software DAW. This is the best article out there. In the past I used a Windows computer with Pro Tools. I spent so much time plowing through the unnecessary and uninteresting stuff just to get simple things done that I found I started to dread sitting down to work on a song. I kept thinking that if I just stayed with it and kept learning, it would eventually be fun.
Then the software problems began. All of the ones you mentioned, I experienced. I finally gave up. Now, after a few years have passed, I'm getting the bug again. I have a new iMac and was planning to buy Logic Pro. But I started having flashbacks about the previous experience. So, I started to seriously consider a hardware DAW. I was just about there when I read your article. You basically voiced every apprehension I have about repeating the mistakes of my first pass at home recording. Thank you so much!
Editor's Note: Thanks. It's always nice to be appreciated. A couple of points worth mentioning here: Apple gear in general does tend to be more "Audio Friendly", though I can't comment on the software's actual performance.
And of course the very nature of software, that constantly changing fluidity, is ultimately the very thing that differentiates hardware from software. When I next plug into my Tascam DP24, it will predictably behave and perform exactly how it did the last time I used it. It won't suddenly fail because I downloaded some absolutely 'necessary' security, application or driver update required by my computer's operating system (or just some obscure application). The DP24 will just work - it will simply do exactly what it's meant to ;-)
Point in case: When I started using the latest version of MIDI guitar it wouldn't work properly (they had changed the way it interacts with the ASIO drivers). The recommended fix was to download yet another third party driver. So some great software went from working, to not working, to sort-of working (most of the time). Then I wanted to try out some hardware MIDI controllers (to get some drum pads happening) ... and guess what, now nothing MIDI works properly. You just gotta love those good old Windows driver conflicts. That's just life using a computer - whenever you change things, shit happens! ;-))
150226 - (Excellent) I have been using a Tascam 2488 Neo for about 5 years and it has stood the test of time with good usage. It has been in the shop for a failed switch but I bought the parts from Tascam and replaced most switches. The sound quality is awesome and setting up for recording is painless and quick. Thanks for this page. It validates what I've been telling my software buddies!
Editor's Note: Sometimes things will simply resolve down to personal preference and how comfortable we are at working with the tools available to us.
141027 - (Excellent) Exactly the question I'm trying to answer. My new problem: Should I go the hardware route if my budget is only $500 and I already have a Macbook Pro?
Editor's Note: I'm a firm believer in making the most of the available resources. Given the tight budget, going hardware would be difficult, whereas you just might be able to do the software approach (given that you have a decent computer). Of course, just about everything (particularly upgrades) is way more expensive to do on a Mac, so in the long run this won't necessarily be the cheaper option. But it surely would get you started.
141018 - (Excellent) Right up to this day I haven't spent any ideas between software DAWs and hardware DAWs. Thanks to this article I've now got a perfect first overview of this topic. I am totally new in music production, thinking in either investing in a MOTIF XF6 or purchasing some appropriate software DAW together with a simple keyboard. For what I have found out so far is that I might spend almost the same money for any software solution compared to the features that the MOTIF offers, if I'm not totally mistaking. Appreciating the effort you've spent for your valuable comparison, I am leaving an excellent rate for this article! - Cheers M
Editor's Note: Thankyou! :-).
141015 - (Not Useful) The only thing I agree to is latency. Everything else is a dish of random lack of knowledge.
Editor's Note: I truly appreciate when visitors take the time to post a comment. Even negative comments can lead to improvements when they are of a constructive nature.
Some visitors though, are just legends in their own mind and seem to miss the part (right before the comment box above) where it says "... If you decide to rate this article as Not Useful, please leave a comment explaining why, so that the article may be improved ..." Anyone can be a 'smart-arse', and it usually doesn't even require you to be all that smart. So, have a better one.
Incept Date: Wizard - 130226
Last Update: Wizard - 210811